Randall Scott King, whose age and street address were not given, abducted the woman Wednesday evening from a MARTA parking lot in southwest Atlanta, police said.
The alleged victim said after the assault, she was released by her captor, who gave her a suicide note and instructions on where to deliver it.
Union City police alerted Hogansville police about the incident early Thursday.
Hogansville officers obtained search warrants and found King at his residence with what appeared to be self-inflicted wounds. Police did not describe the type or extent of his wounds. King was airlifted to Columbus Regional Medical Center, where he was listed in critical condition this morning.
Criminal warrants against King were obtained by MARTA and Hogansville police. The charges were not specified.
King was identified as an employee of the federal Transportation Safety Administration, which is assisting in the investigation.
Hogansville police said the investigation is ongoing and further details will be released when the probe is completed.